Laser cutting technology is a comprehensive high-tech technology that crosses disciplines such as optics, materials science and engineering, mechanical manufacturing, numerical control technology, and electronic technology. It belongs to the common hotspots of the scientific and technological circles at home and abroad. For more than 50 years, laser processing technology and applications have developed rapidly and have been combined with multiple disciplines to form multiple technical application areas. The main laser processing technologies include: laser cutting, laser welding, laser marking, laser drilling, Laser heat treatment, laser rapid prototyping, laser coating, etc.
Laser cutting technology is the main application of laser technology in the industry. It has accelerated the transformation of traditional processing industries and provided new means for modern industrial processing. It has become the most widely used laser processing method in the field of industrial processing. At present, laser cutting technology has been widely used in the pillar industries of national economy such as machinery manufacturing, bridge construction, sheet metal processing, ship and automobile manufacturing, electronic and electrical industry, aviation and aerospace. With the continuous advancement and application of science and technology, laser cutting technology will surely make further progress in other fields.
In recent years, laser processing technology has developed very rapidly and its applications are becoming more and more widespread. Therefore, lasers are known as "universal processing tools" and "common processing methods for future manufacturing systems." Due to the extensive application of laser processing technology by enterprises in advanced industrial countries, their production technology is undergoing qualitative changes. Laser cutting technology is the main application of laser technology in the industry. It has accelerated the transformation of traditional processing industries and provided new means for modern industrial processing. Over 70%.
Laser cutting uses a focused high power density laser beam to irradiate the workpiece. Under the premise that the laser power density exceeds the laser threshold, the energy of the laser beam and the chemical reaction heat energy added by the active gas-assisted cutting process are all absorbed by the material. The temperature at the laser application point rises sharply. After reaching the boiling point, the material begins to vaporize and form holes. With the relative movement of the beam and the workpiece, the material finally forms a slit. The sediment at the slit is blown away by a certain auxiliary gas.
Laser cutting has been widely used in modern industry for its wide cutting range, high cutting speed, narrow slit, good cutting quality, small heat-affected zone, and large addition flexibility. Laser cutting technology has also become laser processing technology. One of the mature technologies. Compared with other light, laser has the following characteristics: high brightness, high directivity, high monochromaticity, and high coherence. It is precisely because laser has these four characteristics that it has been widely used, which brings valuable features to laser processing that traditional processing does not have:
(1) Due to non-contact processing, and the energy and moving speed of the laser beam are adjustable, a variety of processing can be achieved.
(2) It can be used to process many metals and non-metals, especially materials with high hardness, high brittleness and high melting point.
(3) No "tool" wear and no "cutting force" acts on the workpiece during laser processing.
(4) The heat affected zone of the workpiece processed by laser is small, the thermal deformation of the workpiece is small, and the subsequent processing amount is small.
(5) The laser can perform various processing on the workpiece in the closed container through the transparent medium.
(6) The laser is easy to guide. Focusing can be used to achieve transformation in all directions, and it is easy to cooperate with the numerical control system to process complex workpieces. Therefore, laser cutting is a very flexible cutting processing method.
(7) Laser processing has high production efficiency, stable and reliable processing quality, and significant economic and social benefits.